Sumerian civilization and beginning of writing.
A writing system seems like a simple idea pe to the people. Nomadic cultures did not think of ma using symbols to write words which were meant thi to be read, because it required a mixture of vill innovative cultural climate intellectual the curiosity, sophistication, and a real need for cal writing that those cultures did not have Need is the most critical factor; almost the every invention is made in response to a need, Sur and the developing writing was not different. The need for writing was brought about by the inv development in civilization When scholars use term ‘civilization’, they ma refer to societies that have cities, social classes, irri armies, a system of law, and economy. In order co to develop such societies, people had to stop we being nomadic and settled down at one place lar Round between 9000 and 8000 B.C, when th survival had become difficult for the prehistoric te nomadic hunters on the European and Asian c continents, some enterprising people in the a Middle East took the first major step towards t civilization. The next step they took was even more important and it changed their way of lifeforever. Between 8000 & 7000 B.C, a group of people cultivated the first crop of wheat and became the first farmers. They also began to acquire private property and personal possessions- something that was impossible when they were nomadic. The Beginning of Civilization As the population increased, so did the e farmers’ ability to produce crops, and after a time, they produced surplus food. Then some idea people realized that they could earn a living by of making pottery or building boats and in ant things. After 5000 B.C. they began to ban of of villages that grew up along the river ual the Tigris and Euphrates River in the land for called Sumer which is now the part of Iraq. was those small Sumerian villages that marked ost the beginning of civilization as we know ed, Sumerian Invention Between 3500 and 3000 B.C. the Sumerians he invented money, wheel, and the plow, and discovered how to make bronze; they built many cities and devised an intricate system of ey es, irrigation canals for dry plains so that farmers er could plant crops on entire land. Those rulers op were kings and priests who owned most of the land, and rented them to the farmers. And of n those two groups, the priests erected the huge ic temples in the center of the each city. They n controlled the banking, building, and trade e activities conducted within the temples. What s the temples needed was a record- keeping n system that all the priests could read and understand. In about 3 100 B.C the priests answered that need by developing their societ pre-writing pictograms into picture writing. B doing so, they invented world’s first writing system. Experts have always given Sumerians all the credit for inventing writing because it was in Sumer that archeologist found the earliest evidence of writing.