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Software a historic view of its development

 

Throughout history, many misconceptions have occurred regarding the actual meaning of software Some people refer to software as a set of programs that ell the computer what tasks to perform Softwares are the sequence of instruction which are to be executed when computer reads the set of instructions. It is the actual computer program stored in a computcr Within the realm of this definition of software, people tend to have a common misconception of the quality of a software program productivity is measured by how many lines of code are produced in unit time”. s misconception may lead to the production of large amounts of code that cannot be together to successfully accomplish the customer’s needs. Software is divided into two categories system and application. On one hand, the system software tells the computer how to work, while on the other hand the application software is a program that tells the computer how to perform a specific user Job. An interesting definition of software is that software can be viewed as knowledge. Any program certainly contains a large amount of information about a process and the data that are relevant to carrying it out. Programs also contain structural knowledge that indicates the relationship between different processes (programs) and their associated data,

knowledge about the relationships among classes of data, and other information as Therefore, no matter how people view software, and no matter how different the points of view may be, it is essential to understand the importance of software in the computer industry. This research is dedicated to the “soul of the computer” that has long been neglected by researchers, authors, and scholars, the computer software. The research will analyze the history of software’s development th distinct will also provide an software’s development as an “on the shelf product an overview examination of the forces that lead to had g bundling Finally, the research will analyze software gncin development into a multi-billion industry that revolutionized or no the modern computer era ld History of Software Development Many authors used different terminology in tracing the funct different time zones in which software progressed anth dramatically For example, divided the software evolution wo.d into three distinct stages. The Mainframe stage, the Custom mach stage, and the Micro Stage The software are divided the long history of software into The three different periods Pioneering Era (1955-1965) Stabilizing Era (1965-1980) Micro Era (1980- the present time) The Pioneering Era (1955-1965) During this era, computers were merely used asse organizations or for govemmental purposes “In 1954, a group Thr of experts estimated that only fifty US. companies would be able to use a computer Glass reflected on his experiences during that era, “The sins computer the only one is near by, in something we call “the machine room Computers during that era were extremely large in size, end and were stationed in a separate room where the users usually sha sign up for machine time and then run job wa themselves when their turn came Basically, during that era meant that you had to put the punched cu contained the program, its data, and its control information into the machine’s card reader and wait for the results to come back on the pnnter Therefore, programmers had to run their jobs. During this era, many computers invented every be before it. Therefore, software personnel had to rewnte their programs to on the new computers as each one came along,

software was considered a mere accessory to dunng the Pioneering Era Computer consumers wait leased a manufacturer, while the manufacurer or the system the any structure of hardware, whether the user wanted Unlike today, there were no software companies that upackaged software Also, hardware during thus m was designed for optimal performance of cither scientific tasks. On one hand, business decimal ned with variable word lengths und performed richmetic on the other hand, scientific computers used fixed vod lengths and performed binary arithmetic As new machines were developed rapidly, software personnel had to rewrite and translate old soltware to mee the needs of the own languages. new machines. Each new computer had led ue sofiware The process of rewriting old software translation of mmers to use the method of automatic though the another Even assembly language the code, the co- puter often translated 60 to 80 percent of remaining diilicult and complex part of the code required manual human translation. Programmers debated about the nature of their job and whether real programmers should use assembly languages or High Order Languages (HOL) Therefore, they found it difficult to keep up the fast pace of new computer and ass mbly language inventions, “The pace of change was llarendous, far fastcr than at any time In order to increase the amount of software availability, manufacturers had come up with an interesting plan that encouraged the customers to band together into software “banks The behind the banks that each customer would deposit its own and could withdraw other software contributed by other customers However, these banks not succeed. companies that developed better and more efficient programs desire to help their competitors reuse nourished, and On the other hand, as of because software was free, user organizations commonly gave away Therefore, duferent groups offered catalogs of available reusable components. user group For example, DBM’s mathematical offered such cataloas that contained mostly mathematical trigonometric functions. Glass recalled ing some of your products in the SHARE catalog was c honor the field o I recall being deeply proud when a routine T had written was listed with SHARE- Grace Hopper in 1957, developed a new compiler her earlier called MATH-MATIC as a refinement year, Spem

unvention, the A-1 compiler the same UNIVAC Rand released this compiler commercially for its led to thr These earlier works on the A-0 and A-2 eventually development of the first English language business data processing compiler, the B-0 1963, the (Amencan Standard Code for Information fro Interchange) permitted machines from different Alu manufacturers to exchange data The code consisted of 128 for unique of ones and zeroes, and each sequence op represented a letter of the English alphabet, an Arabic numeral, an assortment of punctuation marks and symbols or functons such as a carriage return Thus development was extremely important in relation to standardization within the computer industry, in which he identified the Computer sys Usage Company (CUC) as the world’s first computa software company, Kubie and John W Sheldon were the founders of the Computer Usage Company in March 1955 An interesting incident occumed while IBM was working ACSIl Code on its System/360 While the presidential an election was about to be held in 1964, IBM planned to use an early machine to handle data and produce reports for the CBS TV network. IBM also decided to show its DBM System/360 to its TV audience, but the network insisted that any machine displayed had to process real data Because there was no software produced to accomplish that purpose, T CUC was asked to use software they had to develop and write a program that would keep track of the aton reporting precincts. Therefore the IBM System/350 successfully processed real data that election evening. The Stabilizing Era (1965-1980) During this era, employees sull did not have compulen on their desks, Computers were still located in “machpf rooms”. Unlike the Pioneering Era, programmers no bad to run their jobs, because the “whole job queue sysca had been institutionalized. New developments in operating systems occurred during the Stabilizing Era In 1969, two programmes from AT&T Well Kenneth Thompson and Dennis Ritchie developed the UNI operating system The duo wanted create a computing for facilitating programm research development. The operating system was designed to be to be a convenient system for supporting program development UNIX offered many features, but timesharing and file management By 197 UNIX had become very popular in many univenities

nationwide, and the mption was version live Also, in 1976 Gary Kildall dev al computers, the CP/M CPM is an ab for “Control Program for Microprocesso CP/M was an operating system that allowed the user to take full advantage of the computer hardware. This operating system made was group of programs stored on a diskette known as the “system diskette” CP/M was loaded from the diskette whenever the system was properly turned on, and it began monitoring the keyboard for commands, The operator then entered the appropriate command to activate the desired program Onde the program had been loaded, the operator could use after the program ends, the CP/M prompt would appear again and await the entry of new commands via the keyboard Basically, the CP/M made it possible for one version o program to nun on a variety of computers CPM became extremely accepted among personal computer users, and it evolved through a sencs of

increasingly powerful versions The Micro Era (1980 t the Present) The last and current era began with the rise of microcomputers, In the past, programmers had to take their jobs to a terminal or batch pickup points, but during this era they had the computer power within easy Glass explains how microcomputers positively affected his job “I no longer need to multiprogramming, working on more than one problem at once, wasting time when context switch. A major breakthrough in compuung dunng the 1980s was the development of GUl that was both user-friendly and rogrammer-friendly GUI is an application environment thal as the ability to work with graphical objects. Major Developments During the 1980s The early 1980s marked the period of expensive software In the past, a programmer or a group of programmers,

wth the hope to generate mild profits, produced software However, with the increase of the software industry, the cort to develop and market the products became expensive A developer now had to “proclaim to the world why hs program is better than that of others. Before the 1980s, the average software user was a person who had knowledge about how the software worked However, during the 1980s the software market drastically expanded, average software users needed detailed documentation user-friendly conce instruction manuals, training guides, and demonstration Math diskettes, which programmers did not have the ability to produce

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Asim mahesar
I am a hobbyist web developer, designer & Internet Marketer. I am also a Penetration Tester. I've spent the great part of two decades working as a developer and user experience designer. Apart from development I love to do marketing whether its a SEO or pure internet marketing. I fallen in love with security in 2011, now its my hobby to learn about security and find vulnerabilities but in a ethical way.

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