The role of immunology in modern medicine.
The great advances have been made in the field or since Ehrlich made his epoch making studies, through his studies on the response infection for which he received Nobel Prize in However, much earlier in 1890, Ron Behring and had reported production of antibodies that neutralize diphtheria toxin and tetanus toxin But scientific explanation, for the antigen antibody reaction was prowded by Paul Ehrlich and for a long period of time the pplication of this property engaged the attention of research rks, in the treatment of bacterial diseases The scope of immunology was expanded when, in 1930 Karl Land Steiner discovered the human blood group antigen and laid the foundation of modern blood transfusion addition Land Steiner contributed greatly to the concept of serologic specificity and specificity The result of these efforts in this field formed a comer stone in immunology thought. While the thought that immune mechanism was a defense mechanism was developing, it was known quite early in the studies in Immunology that serious untoward consequences could result from development of immunity. found that repeated injection antigens animals could cause serious hypersensitivity reactions which could be fatal. At the same time it was found that immune mechanism was responsible for many human diseases known s autoimmune diseases Immunology has played a prominent role in the understanding of genetic susceptibility to disease A ranty of diseases states are associated with specific pattern of HIA and mixed Lymphocyte reactivity phenotypes. These provide diagnostic tools for use with individual patients The application of knowledge gained to a variety of chemical studies, diseases process the development of new diagnostic techniques and its uses in therapeutic procedure resulted in the creation of a separate discipline of immunopathology that not only deals with the pathogenesis but also attempts to improve the accuracy of clinical diagnosis The use of fluorescence microscopy for the detection of immune complexes particularly in vascular and renal diseases has to led to broad understanding of a variety of immunologic disorders Systematic Lupus ertheatosus which was at one time thought to be a duscases, have now been proved that collagen is not a fundamental defect in the immune system and a large number of antibodies have been identified against the nuclear and cytoplasmic components of cells During estimation of immunogloms (antibodies) and complement it has been observed that patients suffering from some form of immune deficiency or autoimmune diseases have an increased incidence of lymphoma as well as higher incidence of cancer in general Multiple myeloma malignant disease of plasma cells is known to elaborate a whole range of immunoglobins. Each patient usually produces one specific type of immunoglobin (antibody) but rarely more than one type may be produced Those are detected on electrophoretic analysis when a single narrow spike” referred to as myelomaprote in is seen The study of lymphocytes in blood and tissues has resulted in the identification of two types of lymphocytes, T-Lymphocyte and B-Lymphocyte, each responsible for distinct immunological response T-Lymphocytes produced in the (Thymus) and provide cell mediated immunity and B- Lymphocytes produced in the bone marrow and give humeral Immunity It is apparent from the foregoing examples that immunology will play a vital role in the diagnostic as well a therapeutic field in not too distant time as future