Our Defense Mechanism
Our Defense Mechanism “What has happened to you, my friend? Oh! No, you are suffering fever and cough again You are very weak What can I do? The climate changes and you become ill”, said a body to his friend You often listen to these types of statements that someone is weak and has caught flue. Have you ever thought what is meant by one’s being weak or strong It is something related to immunology Immunology is the branch of Biology which deals with the study of Immunity, defence mechanism and the body response to them. It is taken from Latin word “Immadi means Free From. God has developed a defense mechanism inside our body which keeps us safe from different diseases and microorganism which causes the dangerous diseases Those, who have a well developed Immunity system, have greater ability to fight against diseases. There are two types of Immunity system: l Natural Immunity system 2 Acquired Immunity system I. Natural Immunity system It is the Immunity which develops at the time of birth, i e naturally 2. Acquired Immunity system It is the immunity which is specific and develops after attack of any disease or when any alien particle enters our body This immunity is also developed naturally Historical Background Immunology has vast background, dating back to the 18th century The scientist, Edward Jenner, in 1798 succeeded in developing a vaccine against small pox by using a low pox virus. He inoculated James Phipps, a little body, with low pox maternal, which resulted in development of resistance to small pox infection After that, in 1880, a chemust scientist, Lous Pasteur applied the same principle to prevention of Anthrax, which is the disease of cattle, sheep, horses and many other animals and worked Pasteur honoured Jenner when he was called the culture vaccines, a term derived from a Latin word Vacca means cow. Thus, vaccination involved After sometime, Pasteur
again made a vaccine for the hydrophobia or Rabies, a disease transmitted to people by bites of dog. cat and wolf A boy named Joseph Meister was bitten by a mad woll and for that purpose Pasteur produced vaccine by taking saliva of mad dogs and culated in rabbits Then, the spinal cord and brain could be removed irom injured rabbits and injected into a boy Joseph Meister who recovered and did not die New medical science has advanced very much and has widened its horizons, but still the principles laid by Jenner Pasteur, Koch and many others are used to the day and vaccine procedures or preventive measures have not changed Immunity and Immunse response: Natural Immunity, which is non specific, includes barriers to Infectious agents like, skin mucous membranes, natural killer cells, phagocytes and inflammation ete Few micro organisms are capable of penetrating the intact skin. swell secretions have chemical substances which have antimicrobial properties Lysosomes, an enzyme that activate some bacteria and it is present in the skin and eyes, which bring infection to number of circulating phagocytic cells, are leuoeytes or white blood cells wBC. which engulf any foreign particle (Bacteria) and kills them. Besides phagocytes, our body also produces antibodies against antigen (foreign particle). Antibodies are proteins which have ability to combine with antigen. Body only produces antibodies when any foreign particle enters our body. In our bodies antibodies can also hind to viruses and reduce their ability la invade host cells. They also neutralize toyins of micro organisms, like, diphtheria, tetanus and inactivate their harmful effects. Immunode efficiency diseases Defects in one or more components of Immune system can lead to Immunode efficiency diseases, An eflective immune system leaves the person unable to resist
infections Preventive measures: Thanks to ALLAH, Who has developed such a natural mechanism, which saves us from different diseases, still we need more preventive measures or step to increase our immunity, which are as under We should take a proper diet, which must cont proteins, vitamins, and minerals, as, fats and carbohydrates, because these nutrients have ability to fight against diseases. There should be proper cleaning and hygienic living environment Every one should have proper vaccination at proper time against polio, measles aiphtheria, and should avoid bad habits, like, smoking, because it also reduces the immunity system Anti tetanus injection should be taken whenever you fall on the road. Always drink boiled water and eat properly. If you want to remain healthy and want to increase your immunity system, follow the above said rule, for healthy life is a happy life.