Neem: a green treasure .
The neem tree (Azadirachta indicia Ajuss) in is a tropical ever green tree; it has been used in wit ayurvedic medicine for more than 4000 years dra due to its medical properties. Neem is called aista” in Sanskrit that means “perfect, complete in l and imperishable’. Most of the plant parts such of as fruit, seeds, leaves, bark, and roots contain but compound with proven antiseptic uses. The we Sanskrit name Nimbita swathyamdadh’ is also Ne there for the plant which means “good health’ a u Neem is the most researched tree in the world, and is said to be most promising tree of 21” century. It has great potential in the field of pest Sr management environment protection and Pr medicine Neem tree is natural source of su insectaries pesticides and agrohemist. Neem is large tree growing about 25m in height with semi straight trunk, 3m in girth and fa spreading branches forming a broad crown A ur neem tree normally starts fruiting after 3-5 o years, in about 10 years it becomes fully Su productive From tenth year onwards, it can F produce up to 50 kg fruit annually; the plant Su lives up to two centuriesThe tree has adaptability to a wide range of Ge climatic, topographic and edaphic factors; it Ne thrives well in dry, stony, shallow soil and even See on soil having hard calcarious or clay pan at a Ne shallow depth. Neem tree requires little water cho and plenty sunlight. The tree grows naturally in bad areas where the rainfall is in the range of 450 to rep 1200 mm However, it has been introduced Te successfully even in areas where the rainfall is pro as low as 150 to 250 mm. Neem grows one altitudes up to 1500 m19 o 10) It can grow well uss in wide temperature range of 0c to 49c It can’t ed in with stand water logged areas and poorly years drained soil alled The pH range for growth of neem tree lies plete in between 40 to 10 it grows on almost all types such of soil including clayey, saline and alkaline soil ntain but does well on black corton soil and deep The well drained soil with good sub soil water also Neem tree has ability to neutralize acidic soil by lth’ a unique property of calcium mining orld, Origin and Distribution of Neem It grows as a wild tree un India, Pakistan, pest Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia and Presently, the tree can be seen growing of successfully in 72 countries worldwide in Asia Africa, North Central and South America Neem is a member of the Mahogany and family Taxonomic position of neem is as A under 3-5 Order Rutales ully Suborder Rutinae can Family Melioideae Sub Family Melioideae Fribe Meljeae of Genus Azadirachta it Neem products and their uses Seed Yield oil and cake.Medicine Uses: Since time immemorial aqu Indian are aware of medicinal properties of pre neem. Neem has been extensively used in rats Ayurveda, Unani and homeopathic medicine. eth Traditionally fever skin disease dental stro disorder and other have been treated with pu different parts of neem tree such as leaves ext flower, seed, fruit, root, and bark Neem leaf red exhibits a wide range of pharmacological ex activities viz: anti inflammatory anti wi hyperglycaemic anti oxidant, anti mutgenic da and immunomodulatory Ayurvedic literature list various medicinal ga uses of neem. It describes neem bark to be cool bitter astringents acrid and retrigent and useful co in tiredness, cough, fever, loss of appetite, and c worm infestation. The bark is reported to heal wounds and vitiate condition of kapha 1 vomiting, skin disease, excessive thirst and a diabetes. Neem leaves are reported to be a beneficial for eye disorder and insect poison and v to treat vatic disorder. It is reported to be T antiprotic. Neem fruit is bitter, purgative, anti hemorrhoid and anti helminthicmaterial for pesticide Industry. Conclusion : Owing to its versatile characteristics nee is rightly called “the village pharmacy’ or ‘doctor tree or wonder tree of India or ‘the bitter gem National Research Council (NR Washington, USA consider the neem one of the most promising of all plants and the fact is that it may eventually benefit every person on this planet. Probably no other plant yields as many exploitable products as neem does.