Nanotechnology is the study of the control of matter on an atomic and molecular scale. Generally nanotechnology deals with structures of the size 100 nanometers or smaller in at least one dimension, and involves developing materials or devices within that size. Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. Members of the fullerene family are a major subject of research falling under the nanotechnology umbrella History of nanotechnology The first use of the concepts found in ‘nano-technology’ (but pre-dating use of that name was in “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottcm,” a talk given by physicist Richard Feynman at an American Physical Society meeting at Caltech on December 29, 1959. Feynman described a process by which the ability to manipulate individual atoms and molecules might be developed, using one set of precise tools to build and operate another proportionally smaller set, and so on down to the needed scale. The term “nanotechnology” was defined by Tokyo Science University Professor Norio Taniguchi in a 1974 paper as follows: mainly consists of the process of, separation, consolidation, and deformation of materials by one atom or by one molecule
Nanotechnology and nanoscience got started in the early 1980s with two major developments; the birth of science and the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). development led to the discovery of This es carbon nanotubes a few years later, In development, the synthesis and properties of semiconductor nanocrystals studied; this led to a fast asing number of metal and metal oxide uantum dots. The atomic force microscope was invented six years after the STM was invented In 2000, the United States National Nanotechnology Initiative wa founded to coordinate Federal nanotechnology research and pr dearl development One nanometer (nm) is one billionth, or 10-9, ora mrter used and n By comparison, typical carbon-carbon bond lengths, or the spacing between these atoms in a molecule, are in the rangr 0 12-0 15 nm, and a DNA double helix has a diameter atom around 2 nm On the other hand, the smallest cellular life. of co farms, the bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma, are around 200 Carlo nm in length To put that scale in another context, the comparative anoth size of a nanometer to a meter is the same as that of a marble mech to the size of the earth or another way of putting i a nanometer is the amount a man’s beard grows in the time it takes him lo raise the razor to his face Two main approaches are used in nanotechnology In the “bottom-up” approach, materials and devices are buill mICTU mole from molecular components which assemble themselves flat s chemically by principles of molecular recagnition. In th “top-down” approach, nano-objects are constructed from apply larger entities without atomic level control Areas of physics such as nanoelectronics, havu nanomechanics and nanophotonics have evalved during th last few decades to provide a basic scientific foundation of nanotechnology Modem synthetic chemistry has reached the point where carb it is possible to prepare small molecules to almost any nand structure These methods are used today to manufacture a wide variety of useful chemicals such as pharmaceuticals or appl commercial polymers. This ability raises the question af nano extending this kind of control to the next-larger level, seeking methods to assemble these single molecules inlo med supramolecular assemblies consisting of many molecules arranged in a well defined manner Molecular nanotechnology,
sometimes called molecular manufacturing, is a term given to concept of and nanosystems (nanoscale machines) on the Bott molecular especially associated with assembler, machine can produce a desired DNA nanotechnology utilizes the specificity of Watson criek to construct well defined structures out DNA and other nucleic self assembly seeks More molecular supramolecular chemistry, and molecular particular cause single molecule concepts of fuel recognition some components to automatically arrange themselves into useful conformation His Top down approaches These seek to create smaller devices by using larger ones Tra o direct dieir assembly The top down approach anticipates nanodevices that ince by piece in stages, much as manufactured Scanning probe microscopy is an important fac echnique both for characterization and synthesis of lea and scanning anomaterials Atomic force micr tunneling microscopes can be used to look at surfac and to move atoms around By designing different tips for these Fu microscopes, they can be used for carving out stnictures on surfaces and to help guide self assembling structures By using, Th for example, feature-oriented scanning positioning approach, atorns can be moved around on a surface with scanning probe an microscopy techniques At present, it is expensive and time- consuming for mass production but very suitable for laboratory experimentation Newer techniques such as Dual Polarisation Interferometry are enabling scientists to measure quantitatively the molecular interactions that take place at the nano-scale However new therapeutic products, based on responsive such as the ultradeformable, stress-sensitive nsfersome vesicles, are under and already approved for human use in some countries. List of nanotechnology applications August 21, 2008, the Project on Emerging timates that over tified nanotech products are publicly available, with new ones hitting the market per week blicly accessible lists all of the products in inventory Most applications are limited to online arneration passive materials the use of “first 110 which includes titanium dioxide in sunscreen, cosmetics and some food products allotropes used to produce gecko in food. packaging, clothing,
disinfectants and household a unts and sunscreens and cosmetics, coatings outdoor furniture varnishes, and ivel catalyst National Science Foundation (a major distributor for nanotechnology research in the United States) funded researcher David Ben be to study the field of nanotechnology His findings are published in the monograph The the Nanotechnology Buzz This published study (with a Roco, Senior Advisor for Nanotechnology at the National Science Foundation) ured concludes that much of what is sold as “nanotechnology” is in tari fact a recasting of straightforward materials science, which is leading to a nanotech industry built solely on selling nang nanotubes, nanowires, and the like” which will end up with a few suppliers selling low margin products in huge volumes hese Further applications which require actual manipulation or arrangement of nanoscale components await further rescarch Though technologies branded with the term “nano are ach, sometimes little related to and fall far short of the mosi robe ambitious and transformative technological goals of the sort in molecular manufacturing proposals, the term still such ideas. According to Berube, there may be a danger that Daal nano bubble” will form, or is forming already, from the use of the term the transformative possibilities of more regardless of interest in ambitious and fir sighted work. ponable Nano membranes have been produced that are and easily cleaned systems that punfy, detoxify and eady desalinate water meaning that third-world countries could get clean water, solving many water related health issues Implications of nanotechnology been made about Due to the far-ranging claims that have potential of a of have ure concerns have been raised about what effects these will is on our society if realized, and what action if any appropriate to mitigate these risks anse with the are possible that Nanotechnology suggests that new developments could result, among other things, in untraceable weapons of destruction, networked cameras for use by the governmu and weapons developments fast enough to destabilize am races (“Nanotechnology Basics”) One area of concern is the effect that industrialak manufacturing and use of nanomaterials would have human health and the environment, as suggested 00 nanotoxicology research as the center fr Responsible Nanotechnology have advocated dur nanotechnology should be specially regulated by governments for these reasons. Others counter that would sufle scientific research and the development of innovations which could greatly benefit mankind. Other experts, uncluding director of the Woodrow Wilson Center’s Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies David Rejeski, have testified that successful commercialization depends on adequate oversight, nsk research strategy, and public engagement Berkeley California is the only city in the United States to regulate nanotechnology, Cambridge, Massachusetts in 2008 considered enacting a similar law, but ultimately rejected this.