Global Warming is the increase in the average temperature of Earth’s near-surface
Global Warming is the increase in the average temperature of Earth’s near-surface am and oceans since the mid-20 century and its projected sr continuation. According to the fourth Assessment Report in eta 2007 by the Inter Govemmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2007, the global surface temperature increased 0.74+ observed temperature increase since the middle of the 20 century was caused by increasing concentration of green house gases, which results frorn human activities such as fossil fuel burning and deforestation. Global dimming, a result of increasing concentration of atmospheric aerosols that block sunlight from reaching the surface, has partially countered the effects of green houses induced warming Climate model projections summarized in the latest IPCC report indicate that the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 6 4 C (20 to 11 5 F) durung the 21′ century The uncertainty in this estimate arises from the use of models with differing sensitivity to green house gas concentration and the use of differing estimates of future green house gas emissions. An increase in global will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, probably including expansion of subtropical deserts. Wamming expected to be strongest in the arctic and would be associated with of laciers, permafrost and sea ice. warming and selected changes will vary from region to region around the globe. the nature of these regional variations is uncertain The scientific consensus is that anthropogenic global warming is occurring Nevertheless, political and public debate continues. The Kyoto Protocol is aimed at stabilizung house gas concentration to present a dangerous anthropogenic interference”. As of November 2009 states have signed and ratified the protocol Reducing the amount of future climate change is called mitigation of climate change The IPCC defines mitigation u activities that reduces green house gas (GIIG) emissions, cr enhance the capacity of carbon sinks to absorb GHG from the atmosphere Many countries, both developing and developed, are aiming to use cleaner, less
polluting technologies Use of these technologies aids mitigation cou emissions Policies include slargets for cmissions reduction, increased use of renewable energy, and increase energy efficiency Studies indicate substantial potential for future reduction in emissions Other policy responses include adaptation to climate change The adaptation to climate change may be planned, e g by local or nalional government, or spontaneous, done privately without government intervention. The ability to adapt is closely linked to social and economic development Even, societies with high capacities adapt vulnerable to climate change Plant adaptation is already occurring on a limited basis. The Limits, and costs of adaptation are not fully understood Another policy response is engineering of the climate (geo-engineering) The policy response is sometimes grouped to gather with mitigation Geo-engineering is langely unproven, and reliable cost estimales for it have not yet been published. UNFCCC Most countries are
parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFccc) The ultimate objective of the convention is to prevent dangerous” human interference of the climate system As, is stated in the convention, this requires that GHGs are stabilized in the atmosphere al a level where Ecosystems can adapt naturally to climate change, food production is not threatened, and economic development can proceed in a sustainable fashion. The UNFCCC recognizes differences in their responsibuiry to act on climate change In the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC, most developed countries (Listed in Annex l of the treaty) took on legally binding commitments to reduce their emissions. Policy measures led taken in response to these commitments have reduced emissions for may developing (none Annex-1) countries reducing poverty is their over-riding aim At the 15in UNFCCC conference several UNFCCC Um ind parties produced the Copenhagen Accord. Parties agreeing ing with the Accord aim to limit the future increase in global mean temperature to below 2 c.