Computer and communication technology or Information Technology is going to be the pioneer to not only to the upcoming fields of sciences but to all the walks of life, yes, it is true. Because this is the only unique technology which is very closely related to human life by different ways in educational institutions in research military, economics administration, human behaviour production, management, strategic planning and medical cience, not only this but now the Bio-computers utiliz systems of biologically derived molecules, such as DNA and proteins, to perform computational calculations involving stoning, retrieving, and processing data The development of bio-computers has been made possible by the new science of nano-bio-technology The term nano-bio-technology can be defined multiple ways, in a more general sense, nano-bio-technology can be defined a any type of technology that utilizes both nano-scale materials e materials having characteristic dimensions of 1-100 nanometers, as well as biologically based materials A more restrictive definition views nano-bio-technology more ecifically as the design and engineering of proteins that can hen be assembled into larger, functional structures. The implementation of nano-bio-technology, as defined in this narrower sense, provides scientists with the ability to engineer bio-molecular systems specifically so that they interact in a fashion that can ultimately result in the computational functionality of a computer research utilizes the The field of bio-computer science behind nano-sized biomaterials to create various forms of computational devices, which may have many potential applications in the future. One day, bio-computers utilizing nano-bio-technology may become the cheapest, most energy-efficient, most powerful, and most economical of any commercially available computer, Already, scientits are com making significant headway in the advancement of thi Contents Background l Biochemical Computers l 2 Biomechanical Computers 13 Bioelectronic Computers 2 Engineering Bio-
computers 3 Economical Benefit of Bio-camputers 4 Notable Advancements in Bio-computer Technology 5 Future Patential of Bio-computers Scientific Background Bio-computers utilize biologically derived materials to perform computational functions. A bio-computer consists of a pathway series of metabolic pathways involving a s biological materials that are engineered to behave in a certain con manner based upon the conditions (input) of the system. The rel resulting pathway of reactions that takes place constitutes an ph output, which is based on the engineening design of the bio The computer and can be interpreted as a form of computational of analysis. Three distinguishable types of bio-computers app include biochemical computers, biomechanical computers, and bio-electronic computers. Bio Dio chemical Computers Biochemical computers use the immense variety af bio feedback loops that are characteristic of biological chemical inte reactions in order to achieve computational functionality of Feedback loops in biological systems take many forms, and the many different factors can provide both positive and negative cor feedback to a particular biochemical process, causing either wh an increase in chemical output or a decrease in chemia output, respectively such factors may include the quantity of init catalytic enzymes present, the amount of reactants present the amount of products present, and the presence molecules that bind to and thus alter the chemical r Eni of any of the aforementioned factors, Given the nature these biochemical systems to be regulated through many different mechanisms, one can engineer a pathway comprising a sei of molecular components that react to roduce one particular product under one set of specific chemical conditions and another particular product under another set of The presence of the particular that results from the which can be along with other chemical signals computational output based upon the starung chemical conditions of the system i e, the input Bio-mechanical computers Biomechanical computers are similar to biochemical computers that they both perform a specific output that can be interpreted as a functional computation based upon specific inihal conditions wbich serve as input. They differ however, in what exactly serves as the output signal. In
biochemical computers, the presence or concentration of certain chemicals serves as the output signal in biomechanical computers, however, the mechanical shape a specific molecule or set of molecules under a set of initial conditions serves as the output rely on the nature of specific molecules to adopt certain physical configurations under certain chemical conditions The mechanical, three-dimensional structure of the product of the biomechanical computer is detected and interpretcd appropnately as a calculated output. Dio electronic Computers Bio computers can also be constructed to perform computing. Again, like both biomechanical and biochemical computers, computations are by a specific output that is based upon an initial set of conditions that serve as input In bio-clectronic computers, the measured output is the nature of the electrical conductivity that Ls iD the bio-electronic computer, which comprises specifically designed bio-molecules that conduct electricity in highly specific manners based upon the initial conditions that serve as the input of the bio-electronic system Engineering Bio-computers derived computational The behavior of bialogically derived computational systems such as these relies on the particular molecules that make up the system, which are primarily proteins but may also include DNA molecules, Nano bio technology provides the means to synthesize the multiple chemical components necessary to create such a system The chemacal nature of a protein is dictated by its sequence of chemical building blocks of proteins. This sequence is in turm dictated by a specific sequence of DNA building blocks of DNA molecules. Proteins are manufactured in biological systems through the translation of nucleotide sequences by biological molecules called nbosome which assemble individual amino acids into polypeptides that form functional proteins based on the nucleotide sequence that the interprets. What this ultimately means can engineer a bio-computer, Le components necessary to serve as a biological system capable of performing computations, by DNA nucleolide sequences to encode for the necessary protein components Also,
the synthetically designed DNA molecules themselves may function in a particular bio-computer system Thus implementing nanobiotechnology to design and produce synthetically designed proteins, as well as the design and can allow synthesis of artificial DNA molecules construction of functional bio-computers Economical Benefit of Bio-computers A hallmark of all biological organisms and the chemical building blocks that comprise them is the ability to self licate and selfassemble into functional components, l could not be sustained if living organisms were not capable of computers themselves. lie economical benefit o bio- a lies in this potential of all biologically denved self appropriale conditions instance, all of the necessary for a certain biochemical pathway, which can be modified lo serve as a bio-computer, can be synthesized many times over inside a biological cell from a single DNA molecule, which can itself be replicated many times over This characteristicof P biological molecules makes their production highly efficien and relatively inexpensive Whereas non-biological computer components require extensive production processes, thr th components of bio-computers can be produced in large that quantities from tandem processes occurring in a single, easily attainable, convenient source–the replicating machinery present within any biological cell. ovides Notable Advancements in Bio-computer Technology the Currently, bio-computers exist with various functional n turm capabilities that include operations of logic and mathematical calculations T. Knight of the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory first suggested a biochemical computing scheme on of which protein concentrations are used as binary signals that ultimately serve to perform logical operations At ar s that above a certain concentration of a particular biochemical product in a bio-computer chemical pathway a that is either ar a 0, and a concentration below this mical level the other, remaining signal Using this method pable computational analys biochemical computers can cotide perform logical operations in which the appropriate binary ments output will occur only under specific, logical constraints on elves the initial conditions In other words,
the a ppropnate binary output serves as a logically derived conclusion from a set of initial conditions that serve as premises from which the and logical conclusion can be made. In addition to these types of logical operations, bio-computers have also been shown to demonstrate other functional capabilities, such as mathematical computations, One such example was provided by W L Ditto who in 1999 aeated a bio-computer composed of leech neurons at Georgia Tech which was nical capable of performing simple addition These are just a few self. of the notable uses that bio-computers have already been of engineered to perform, and the capabilities of of the bio- are becoming increasingly sophisticated Because availability and potential economic efficiency associated with producing and bio-computers, as noted above, ived riate the advancement of the technology of bio-computers s a eins Popular, rapidly growing subject of research that likely to d to see much progress in the future.